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Informations about the package web-push
Web Push library for PHP
WebPush can be used to send notifications to endpoints which server delivers Web Push notifications as described in the Web Push protocol. As it is standardized, you don't have to worry about what server type it relies on.
PHP 7.2+ and the following extensions:
- gmp (optional but better for performance)
There is no support and maintenance for older PHP versions, however you are free to use the following compatible versions:
- PHP 5.6 or HHVM:
- PHP 7.0:
- PHP 7.1:
Use composer to download and install the library and its dependencies.
composer require minishlink/web-push
Full examples of Web Push implementations
- An example with web-push-php: Minishlink/web-push-php-example
- Matthew Gaunt's Web Push Book - a must read
- Mozilla's ServiceWorker Cookbooks (don't mind the
server.jsfile: it should be replaced by your PHP server code with this library)
- Google's introduction to push notifications (as of 03-20-2016, it doesn't mention notifications with payload)
- you may want to take a look at my own implementation: sw.js and app.js
Browsers need to verify your identity. A standard called VAPID can authenticate you for all browsers. You'll need to create and provide a public and private key for your server. These keys must be safely stored and should not change.
You can specify your authentication details when instantiating WebPush. The keys can be passed directly (recommended), or you can load a PEM file or its content:
In order to generate the uncompressed public and secret key, encoded in Base64, enter the following in your Linux bash:
If you can't access a Linux bash, you can print the output of the
On the client-side, don't forget to subscribe with the VAPID public key as the
urlBase64ToUint8Array source here)
Reusing VAPID headers
VAPID headers make use of a JSON Web Token (JWT) to verify your identity. That token payload includes the protocol and hostname of the endpoint included in the subscription and an expiration timestamp (usually between 12-24h), and it's signed using your public and private key. Given that, two notifications sent to the same push service will use the same token, so you can reuse them for the same flush session to boost performance using:
Notifications and default options
Each notification can have a specific Time To Live, urgency, and topic.
You can change the default options with
setDefaultOptions() or in the constructor:
Time To Live (TTL, in seconds) is how long a push message is retained by the push service (eg. Mozilla) in case the user browser is not yet accessible (eg. is not connected). You may want to use a very long time for important notifications. The default TTL is 4 weeks. However, if you send multiple nonessential notifications, set a TTL of 0: the push notification will be delivered only if the user is currently connected. For other cases, you should use a minimum of one day if your users have multiple time zones, and if they don't several hours will suffice.
Urgency can be either "very-low", "low", "normal", or "high". If the browser vendor has implemented this feature, it will save battery life on mobile devices (cf. protocol).
Similar to the old
collapse_key on legacy GCM servers, this string will make the vendor show to the user only the last notification of this topic (cf. protocol).
If you send tens of thousands notifications at a time, you may get memory overflows due to how endpoints are called in Guzzle.
In order to fix this, WebPush sends notifications in batches. The default size is 1000. Depending on your server configuration (memory), you may want
to decrease this number. Do this while instanciating WebPush or calling
setDefaultOptions. Or, if you want to customize this for a specific flush, give
it as a parameter :
You can see what the browser vendor's server sends back in case it encountered an error (push subscription expiration, wrong parameters...).
MessageSentReportobjects. To loop through the results, just pass it into
foreach. You can also use
iterator_to_arrayto check the contents while debugging.
PLEASE NOTE: You can only iterate once over the
Firefox errors are listed in the autopush documentation.
Payload length, security, and performance
Payloads are encrypted by the library. The maximum payload length is theoretically 4078 bytes (or ASCII characters). For compatibility reasons though, your payload should be less than 3052 bytes long.
The library pads the payload by default. This is more secure but it decreases performance for both your server and your user's device.
Why is it more secure?
When you encrypt a string of a certain length, the resulting string will always have the same length, no matter how many times you encrypt the initial string. This can make attackers guess the content of the payload. In order to circumvent this, this library adds some null padding to the initial payload, so that all the input of the encryption process will have the same length. This way, all the output of the encryption process will also have the same length and attackers won't be able to guess the content of your payload.
Why does it decrease performance?
Encrypting more bytes takes more runtime on your server, and also slows down the user's device with decryption. Moreover, sending and receiving the packet will take more time. It's also not very friendly with users who have limited data plans.
How can I disable or customize automatic padding?
You can customize automatic padding in order to better fit your needs.
Here are some ideas of settings:
Encryption::MAX_COMPATIBILITY_PAYLOAD_LENGTH(3052 bytes) for compatibility purposes with Firefox for Android
Encryption::MAX_PAYLOAD_LENGTH(4078 bytes) for maximum security
falsefor maximum performance
- If you know your payloads will not exceed
Xbytes, then set it to
Xfor the best balance between security and performance.
Customizing the HTTP client
WebPush uses Guzzle. It will use the most appropriate client it finds,
and most of the time it will be
MultiCurl, which allows to send multiple notifications in parallel.
You can customize the default request options and timeout when instantiating WebPush:
Is there any plugin/bundle/extension for my favorite PHP framework?
The following are available:
- Laravel: laravel-notification-channels/webpush
Feel free to add your own!
Is the API stable?
Not until the Push API spec is finished.
What about security?
Internally, WebPush uses the WebToken framework or OpenSSL to handle encryption keys generation and encryption.
How do I scale?
Here are some ideas:
- Upgrade to PHP 7.2
- Make sure MultiCurl is available on your server
- Find the right balance for your needs between security and performance (see above)
- Find the right batch size (set it in
defaultOptionsor as parameter to
How to solve "SSL certificate problem: unable to get local issuer certificate"?
Your installation lacks some certificates.
- Download cacert.pem.
- Edit your
curl.cainfo = /path/to/cacert.pem.
You can also force using a client without peer verification.
How to solve "Bad key encryption key length" or "Unsupported key type"?
mbstring.func_overload in your
How to solve "Class 'Minishlink\WebPush\WebPush' not found"
Make sure to require Composer's autoloader.
I must use PHP 5.4 or 5.5. What can I do?
You won't be able to send any payload, so you'll only be able to use
Install the library with
The workaround for getting the payload is to fetch it in the service worker (example).
I lost my VAPID keys!
See issue #58.
I'm using Firebase push notifications, how do I use this library?
This library is not designed for Firebase push notifications. You can still use it for your web projects (for standard WebPush notifications), but you should forget any link to Firebase while using the library.
I need to send notifications to native apps. (eg. APNS for iOS)
WebPush is for web apps. You need something like RMSPushNotificationsBundle (Symfony).
This library was inspired by the Node.js marco-c/web-push library.
ext-curl Version *
ext-json Version *
ext-mbstring Version *
ext-openssl Version *
guzzlehttp/guzzle Version ^7.0.1|^6.2
web-token/jwt-signature Version ^2.0
web-token/jwt-key-mgmt Version ^2.0
web-token/jwt-signature-algorithm-ecdsa Version ^2.0
web-token/jwt-util-ecc Version ^2.0