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Informations about the package phpdotenv
Loads environment variables from
You should never store sensitive credentials in your code. Storing configuration in the environment is one of the tenets of a twelve-factor app. Anything that is likely to change between deployment environments – such as database credentials or credentials for 3rd party services – should be extracted from the code into environment variables.
.env file is an easy way to load custom configuration variables
that your application needs without having to modify .htaccess files or
Apache/nginx virtual hosts. This means you won't have to edit any files outside
the project, and all the environment variables are always set no matter how you
run your project - Apache, Nginx, CLI, and even PHP's built-in webserver. It's
WAY easier than all the other ways you know of to set environment variables,
and you're going to love it!
- NO editing virtual hosts in Apache or Nginx
- NO adding
php_valueflags to .htaccess files
- EASY portability and sharing of required ENV values
- COMPATIBLE with PHP's built-in web server and CLI runner
PHP dotenv is a PHP version of the original Ruby dotenv.
Installation is super-easy via Composer:
or add it by hand to your
We follow semantic versioning, which means breaking changes may occur between major releases. We have upgrading guides available for V2 to V3, V3 to V4 and V4 to V5 available here.
.env file is generally kept out of version control since it can contain
sensitive API keys and passwords. A separate
.env.example file is created
with all the required environment variables defined except for the sensitive
ones, which are either user-supplied for their own development environments or
are communicated elsewhere to project collaborators. The project collaborators
then independently copy the
.env.example file to a local
.env and ensure
all the settings are correct for their local environment, filling in the secret
keys or providing their own values when necessary. In this usage, the
file should be added to the project's
.gitignore file so that it will never
be committed by collaborators. This usage ensures that no sensitive passwords
or API keys will ever be in the version control history so there is less risk
of a security breach, and production values will never have to be shared with
all project collaborators.
Add your application configuration to a
.env file in the root of your
project. Make sure the
.env file is added to your
.gitignore so it is not
checked-in the code
Now create a file named
.env.example and check this into the project. This
should have the ENV variables you need to have set, but the values should
either be blank or filled with dummy data. The idea is to let people know what
variables are required, but not give them the sensitive production values.
You can then load
.env in your application with:
To suppress the exception that is thrown when there is no
.env file, you can:
Optionally you can pass in a filename as the second parameter, if you would
like to use something other than
All of the defined variables are now available in the
Putenv and Getenv
putenv() is strongly discouraged due to the fact that
these functions are not thread safe, however it is still possible to instruct
PHP dotenv to use these functions. Instead of calling
Dotenv::createImmutable, one can call
will add the
PutenvAdapter behind the scenes. Your environment variables will
now be available using the
getenv method, as well as the super-globals:
It's possible to nest an environment variable within another, useful to cut down on repetition.
This is done by wrapping an existing environment variable in
Immutability and Repository Customization
Immutability refers to if Dotenv is allowed to overwrite existing environment
variables. If you want Dotenv to overwrite existing environment variables,
createMutable instead of
Behind the scenes, this is instructing the "repository" to allow immutability
or not. By default, the repository is configured to allow overwriting existing
values by default, which is relevant if one is calling the "create" method
RepositoryBuilder to construct a more custom repository:
The above example will write loaded values to
putenv, but when
interpolating environment variables, we'll only read from
$_ENV. Moreover, it
will never replace any variables already set before loading the file.
By means of another example, one can also specify a set of variables to be allow listed. That is, only the variables in the allow list will be loaded:
Requiring Variables to be Set
PHP dotenv has built in validation functionality, including for enforcing the presence of an environment variable. This is particularly useful to let people know any explicit required variables that your app will not work without.
You can use a single string:
Or an array of strings:
If any ENV vars are missing, Dotenv will throw a
RuntimeException like this:
Beyond simply requiring a variable to be set, you might also need to ensure the variable is not empty:
If the environment variable is empty, you'd get an Exception:
You might also need to ensure that the variable is of an integer value. You may do the following:
If the environment variable is not an integer, you'd get an Exception:
One may only want to enforce validation rules when a variable is set. We support this too:
You may need to ensure a variable is in the form of a boolean, accepting "true", "false", "On", "1", "Yes", "Off", "0" and "No". You may do the following:
If the environment variable is not a boolean, you'd get an Exception:
Similarly, one may write:
It is also possible to define a set of values that your environment variable should be. This is especially useful in situations where only a handful of options or drivers are actually supported by your code:
If the environment variable wasn't in this list of allowed values, you'd get a similar Exception:
It is also possible to define a regex that your environment variable should be.
You can comment your
.env file using the
# character. E.g.
Parsing Without Loading
Sometimes you just wanna parse the file and resolve the nested environment variables, by giving us a string, and have an array returned back to you. While this is already possible, it is a little fiddly, so we have provided a direct way to do this:
This is exactly the same as:
only, instead of providing the directory to find the file, you have directly provided the file contents.
When a new developer clones your codebase, they will have an additional
one-time step to manually copy the
.env.example file to
.env and fill-in
their own values (or get any sensitive values from a project co-worker).
If you discover a security vulnerability within this package, please send an email to Graham Campbell at [email protected] All security vulnerabilities will be promptly addressed. You may view our full security policy here.
PHP dotenv is licensed under The BSD 3-Clause License.
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