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Informations about the package compiler


Build status Code coverage Packagist License

Hoa is a modular, extensible and structured set of PHP libraries.
Moreover, Hoa aims at being a bridge between industrial and research worlds.


Help on IRC Help on Gitter Documentation Board

This library allows to manipulate LL(1) and LL(k) compiler compilers. A dedicated grammar description language is provided for the last one: the PP language.

Learn more.


With Composer, to include this library into your dependencies, you need to require hoa/compiler:

For more installation procedures, please read the Source page.


Before running the test suites, the development dependencies must be installed:

Then, to run all the test suites:

For more information, please read the contributor guide.

Quick usage

As a quick overview, we will look at the PP language and the LL(k) compiler compiler.

The PP language

A grammar is constituted by tokens (the units of a word) and rules (please, see the documentation for an introduction to the language theory). The PP language declares tokens with the following construction:

The default namespace is default. The value of a token is represented by a PCRE. We can skip tokens with the %skip construction.

As an example, we will take the simplified grammar of the JSON language. The complete grammar is in the hoa://Library/Json/Grammar.pp file. Thus:

We can see the PP constructions:

Unification is very useful. For example, if we have a token that expresses a quote (simple or double), we could have:

So, the data "foo" and 'foo' will be valid, but also "foo' and 'foo"! To avoid this, we can add a new constraint on token value by unifying them, thus:

All quote[0] for the rule instance must have the same value. Another example is the unification of XML tags name.

LL(k) compiler compiler

The Hoa\Compiler\Llk\Llk class provide helpers to manipulate (load or save) a compiler. The following code will use the previous grammar to create a compiler, and we will parse a JSON string. If the parsing succeed, it will produce an AST (stands for Abstract Syntax Tree) we can visit, for example to dump the AST:

Pretty simple.

Compiler in CLI

This library proposes a script to parse and apply a visitor on a data with a specific grammar. Very useful. Moreover, we can use pipe (because Hoa\File\Read —please, see the Hoa\File library— supports 0 as stdin), thus:

You can apply any visitor classes.


Errors are well-presented:


Some algorithms are available to generate data based on a grammar. We will give only one example with the coverage-based generation algorithm that will activate all branches and tokens in the grammar:

Research papers


The hack book of Hoa\Compiler contains detailed information about how to use this library and how it works.

To generate the documentation locally, execute the following commands:

More documentation can be found on the project's website:

Getting help

There are mainly two ways to get help:


Do you want to contribute? Thanks! A detailed contributor guide explains everything you need to know.


Hoa is under the New BSD License (BSD-3-Clause). Please, see LICENSE for details.

All versions of compiler with dependencies

PHP Build Version
Package Version
Requires hoa/consistency Version ~1.0
hoa/exception Version ~1.0
hoa/file Version ~1.0
hoa/iterator Version ~2.0
hoa/math Version ~1.0
hoa/protocol Version ~1.0
hoa/regex Version ~1.0
hoa/visitor Version ~2.0
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