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Informations about the package dibi

Dibi - smart database layer for PHP Buy me a coffee

Downloads this Month Tests Build Status Windows Latest Stable Version License

Introduction

Database access functions in PHP are not standardised. This library hides the differences between them, and above all, it gives you a very handy interface.

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Installation

Install Dibi via Composer:

The Dibi 5.0 requires PHP version 8.0 and supports PHP up to 8.2.

Usage

Refer to the examples directory for examples. Dibi documentation is available on the homepage.

Connecting to database

The database connection is represented by the object Dibi\Connection:

Alternatively, you can use the dibi static register, which maintains a connection object in a globally available storage and calls all the functions above it:

In the event of a connection error, it throws Dibi\Exception.

Queries

We query the database queries by the method query() which returns Dibi\Result. Rows are objects Dibi\Row.

You can try all the examples online at the playground.

Method fetchAssoc() can return a more complex associative array.

You can easily add parameters to the query, note the question mark:

WARNING: Never concatenate parameters to SQL. It would create a SQL injection vulnerability.

Instead of a question mark, so-called modifiers can be used.

In case of failure query() throws Dibi\Exception, or one of the descendants:

You can use also shortcuts:

Modifiers

In addition to the ? wildcard char, we can also use modifiers:

modifier description
%s string
%sN string, but '' translates as NULL
%bin binary data
%b boolean
%i integer
%iN integer, but 0 is translates as NULL
%f float
%d date (accepts DateTime, string or UNIX timestamp)
%dt datetime (accepts DateTime, string or UNIX timestamp)
%n identifier, ie the name of the table or column
%N identifier, treats period as a common character, ie alias or a database name (%n AS %N or DROP DATABASE %N)
%SQL SQL - directly inserts into SQL (the alternative is Dibi\Literal)
%ex SQL expression or array of expressions
%lmt special - adds LIMIT to the query
%ofs special - adds OFFSET to the query

Example:

If $name is null, the NULL is inserted into the SQL statement.

If the variable is an array, the modifier is applied to all of its elements and they are inserted into SQL separated by commas:

The modifier %n is used if the table or column name is a variable. (Beware, do not allow the user to manipulate the content of such a variable):

Three special modifiers are available for LIKE:

modifier description
%like~ the expression starts with a string
%~like the expression ends with a string
%~like~ the expression contains a string
%like the expression matches a string

Search for names beginning with a string:

Modifiers for arrays

The parameter entered in the SQL query can also be an array. These modifiers determine how to compile the SQL statement:

modifier result
%and key1 = value1 AND key2 = value2 AND ...
%or key1 = value1 OR key2 = value2 OR ...
%a assoc key1 = value1, key2 = value2, ...
%l %in list (val1, val2, ...)
%v values (key1, key2, ...) VALUES (value1, value2, ...)
%m multi (key1, key2, ...) VALUES (value1, value2, ...), (value1, value2, ...), ...
%by ordering key1 ASC, key2 DESC ...
%n names key1, key2 AS alias, ...

Example:

In the WHERE clause modifiers %and nebo %or can be used:

The modifier %by is used to sort, the keys show the columns, and the boolean value will determine whether to sort in ascending order:

Insert, Update & Delete

We insert the data into an SQL query as an associative array. Modifiers and wildcards ? are not required in these cases.

Multiple INSERT:

Deleting:

Update:

Insert an entry or update if it already exists:

Transaction

There are three methods for dealing with transactions:

Testing

In order to play with Dibi a little, there is a test() method that you pass parameters like to query(), but instead of executing the SQL statement, it is echoed on the screen.

The query results can be echoed as a table using $result->dump().

These variables are also available:

Complex queries

The parameter may also be an object DateTime.

Or SQL literal:

Or an expression in which you can use ? or modifiers:

When updating, modifiers can be placed directly in the keys:

In conditions (ie, for %and and %or modifiers), it is not necessary to specify the keys:

Modifiers or wildcards can also be used in expressions:

The %ex modifier inserts all items of the array into SQL:

Conditions in the SQL

Conditional SQL commands are controlled by three modifiers %if, %else, and %end. The %if must be at the end of the string representing SQL and is followed by the variable:

The condition can be supplemented by the section %else:

Conditions can nest together.

Identifiers and strings in SQL

SQL itself goes through processing to meet the conventions of the database. The identifiers (names of tables and columns) can be entered into square brackets or backticks, strings are quoted with single or double quotation marks, but the server always sends what the database asks for. Example:

The quotation marks are duplicated inside the string in SQL.

Result as associative array

Example: returns results as an associative field, where the key will be the value of the id field:

The greatest power of fetchAssoc() is reflected in a SQL query joining several tables with different types of joins. The database will make a flat table, fetchAssoc returns the shape.

Example: Let's take a customer and order table (N:M binding) and query:

And we'd like to get a nested associative array by Customer ID and then Order ID:

An associative descriptor has a similar syntax as when you type the array by assigning it to PHP. Thus 'customer_id|order_id' represents the assignment series $all[$customerId][$orderId] = $row; sequentially for all rows.

Sometimes it would be useful to associate by the customer's name instead of his ID:

But what if there are more customers with the same name? The table should be in the form of:

So we can distinguish between multiple possible Rimmers using an array. The associative descriptor has a format similar to the assignment, with the sequence array representing []:

Returning to the example with the customer_id|order_id descriptor, we will try to list the orders of each customer:

It would be a nice to echo customer name too. But we would have to look for it in the $orders array. So let's adjust the results to such a shape:

So, between $clientId and $orderId, we will also insert an intermediate item. This time not the numbered indexes as we used to distinguish between individual Rimmers, but a database row. The solution is very similar, just remember that the row symbolizes the arrow:

Prefixes & substitutions

Table and column names can contain variable parts. You will first define:

and then use it in SQL. Note that in SQL they are quoted by the colon:

Field data types

Dibi automatically detects the types of query columns and converts fields them to native PHP types. We can also specify the type manually. You can find the possible types in the Dibi\Type class.

Logger

Dibi has a built-in logger that lets you track all SQL statements executed and measure the length of their duration. Activating the logger:

A more versatile profiler is a Tracy panel that is activated when connected to Nette.

Connect to Nette

In the configuration file, we will register the DI extensions and add the dibi section to create the required objects and also the database panel in the Tracy debugger bar.

Then the object of connection can be obtained as a service from the container DI, eg:


All versions of dibi with dependencies

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